2013年9月26日

認識針織布料



我們常見到太太小姐們在閒暇時,拿起細小的棒子,一針一鈎地把毛線編織成各種衣帽及飾品,針織的原力就和這種手工編織的原理一樣。現代的針織機,就是根據這種手工編織原理,使一根紗線穿過一個針圈(Loop),並使這個原先的針圈脫離針鉤,而原先穿過針圈的那根紗繞於針柄上,另成一個新的針圈,如此循環而織成了我們日常穿著的針織衣物。

針織布有伸縮性是因為如上所述,針織是由線圈交套而成,紗線中彼此空隙較大,所以,所以與平織布料相較起來,針織布較容易通風且容易拉伸延展及回復。

針織布料的特性是什麼?

針織布料相較於一般布料質地較柔軟、容易透風透氣、彈性較高。生產上速度較快產量高。

常見的針織布產品:

POLO杉、T-Shirt(T恤)、圍巾、手套、毛衣、運動衣、運動外套、運動褲、襪子、泳衣、椅套等。

針織布料結構示意圖
Knitted Fabric Structure
針織布料的種類:

針織布料主要分成圓編經編橫編

  • 圓編:其線環圓展是緯向串連,可分為單面布、羅紋布、雙面布、提花布等;最常用於生產內衣產品。
  • 經編:先行整經而達編織,經編組成,乃由經線左右組環,縱向套接。如洞洞布
  • 橫編:其線環圓展是緯向串連,一般織物有織毛衣片、POLO衫領片、袖口片等。

常見的針織布料組織分類:

  • 單面布 SINGLE JERSEY : 用在夏季上衣比較多,你可以看正面布紋一條條直向織紋,背面布紋與正面不同呈漩渦狀;這種布的特性是薄,洗過後除左右接縫可以會往後或往前偏移外,不會有多大問題。

  • 羅紋布 RIB : 有區分為1*1, 2*2或 A*B 都有,市面上用最多的應該是1*1 羅紋, 1*1你可以看正面與反面呈一凸一凹的直向織紋,若是2*2就是正面與背面呈2凸2凹,若3*1則是正面是呈3凸1凹,背面則是3凹一凸;此類布最大特色在拉力奇好,同一尺寸胖的人還是可以穿的,但注意超過拉力後布性可能無法回復原性,所以用洗衣機洗時務必要裝在洗衣袋內洗,以免在洗衣機內拉扯衣服變形。

  • 雙面布 INTERLOCK :就是正面跟反面布紋都一樣呈一條條直向織紋,此布本身彈性較羅紋布小,布性穩定,比較不會變型,但厚度上會比單面布厚,所以用在春秋款的上衣居多。 

  • PK布 PICQUE:多用於POLO衫。

  • 魚鱗布 FRENCH TERRY:看字面就知道,此類布背面有點像魚鱗般的紗紋, 多用在冬天厚衣服或休閒服上。

  • 刷毛布POLAR FLEECE:多用在冬天外套或上衣,有保暖效果,有分單面刷毛或雙面刷毛,此類有些會起毛球有些不會,端看刷毛後是否有在作抗起毛球加工處理,此類衣物因為有經刷毛處理,所以表面容易沾粘毛屑,所以你會發現黑色衣服上常看到白色或其他色的屑屑黏在上面。
 
自動針織機
Automatic Knitting Machine



Knitted Fabrics

Knitting is the construction of an elastic, porous fabric, created by interlocking yarns by means of needles. Knitted fabrics can be made much more quickly and easily than woven fabrics at comparatively less cost. Knitted fabrics are generally light in weight, comfortable in wear even during travel, but yet require little care to keep their neat appearance. The tendency of knits to resist wrinkling is another factor to boost up their popularity. Knitted fabrics are used for designing active clothing such as sports clothing. Their elastic nature permits for abundant physical activity. Knitted fabrics are produced by two general methods. Warp knitting and weft knitting. They are made as flat or tubular fabrics depending on the end use. Tubular fabrics may not have any seams at the sides where as flat fabrics are treted just like woven fabrics.
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Knitted Fabric Types

Jersey Knit

These fabrics are weft knitted and are characterised by distinct but flat vertical lines on the face and dominant horizontal ribs on the reverse side. Fancy varieties are also produced. They are used in making hoisery sweaters, sports wear etc.

Rib knits

These fabrics are made by using rib stitch with two sets of needles. These fabrics are used where stretch is desired as they show excellent degree of elasticity. Rib knits are warm to wear. They are used as apparels such as shirts, blouses, body stockings etc.

Double knit

Double knits are produced by the interlock stitch. The fabrics is riblike in appearance on both the sides. Decorative fabrics are also produced by jacquard attachment. These fabrics show good dimensional stability and are easy to cut and sew. They do not require any seam finishes as the fabric does not ravel. They are firm, heavier, less stretchable and more resilient. Double knits are commonly made from polyester, cetate or wool fibres. They find use as every durable apparels.

Knitted fur fabrics

A wide range of knitted fur fabrics are available in the market. The fabrics are produced by pile knitting. The extra set of soft filament yarns used form the pile on the surface of the fabric. The pile is cut and the fabric are finished similar to the original fur. These fabrics are mainly used for coats and trimmings for other dresses.

編排整理 Edited: ACOTEX Fabric Talks 布料指南

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