2013年5月7日

尼龍是什麼?


尼龍(Nylon),化學名稱為聚酰胺纖維,大陸地區又稱作「錦綸」。因為尼龍屬於天然纖維性質的合成纖維,所以非常適合與其它纖維交織混合,成為高質感又耐用的複合纖維。運用的層面也非常地廣,從潛水衣、減肥衣褲、沖浪衣、釣魚褲、防寒衣物等,到背包、環保袋、飲料罐套、甚至建築材料等等。

尼龍的優點是強韌、耐磨、平滑、重量輕、抗蟲、抗霉而且材質不易產生靜電、變形、起毛球和老損等。但缺點就是較不耐熱,所以熨燙時需小心溫度。要辨別尼龍的好壞,看尼龍的「丹尼」數是最直接的方式了。「丹尼」是尼龍的計算方式,與其它紡織布料的「支數」不同 (了解純棉寢具的密度關係),丹尼數不等於其中的支數密度。舉例來說,重量七十公克的尼龍,所製成的尼龍布料稱為七十丹尼,取用的原絲愈細,織出來的尼龍布就愈薄,愈薄的尼龍布其丹尼數自然也就愈低。

所以丹尼數低的尼龍布料較薄較柔軟,反之丹尼數高的尼龍布料則較厚手感較硬,市面上常見的尼龍布料可區分為70丹尼、210丹尼、420丹尼、840丹尼等。台灣紡織產業就曾開發出十丹尼的超薄透氣尼龍布料。

一般人對尼龍材質衣物的印象是不通風、不透氣、不舒適。但經過現代紡織技術的改造之後善尼龍的缺點,舒適度也能大大提升。尤其如果將尼龍抽成纖細的長絲並織成非常細薄的衣物時,其中間的空隙多,易使空氣循環流動,穿著起來便非常涼爽,可做為夏季衣著之用。

尼龍不耐高溫,只要靠近火焰或熱源,便會立即迅速卷縮熔成白色膠狀,並起泡。所以在清洗尼龍衣物時,切記避免使用高溫洗滌、烘乾或整燙。

尼龍的種類:

在1939年德國發明了尼龍6,接著蘇俄也發明尼龍7,義大利也發明出尼龍11,隨後美國也陸續發展出尼龍4、尼龍8、尼龍10及尼龍6.10。雖然尼龍種類很多,但後來被大量生產製造的以尼龍6和尼龍6.6(尼龍66)居多。

尼龍衣物如何清洗?

尼龍材質的衣物不容易退色,但很容易染色,清洗時務必記得和其他深色衣物分開洗滌,以免染色。適用一般中性洗潔劑,並避免使用熱水。因為尼龍材質不吸水的特性,洗後乾很快,幾乎不需要使用烘乾機,晾乾時盡量在陰涼通風處,避免長時間曝曬,以免衣服變黃。尼龍是不容易發皺的,但如果實在有需要熨燙時,隔著一層布料用低溫整燙即可。(前往了解衣物髒了該如何清洗)

(前往了解聚酯纖維和尼龍有何不同)


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What is Nylon?


Nylon is a synthetic fabric made from petroleum products, and is among the many polymer products in common daily use throughout the world. It is the second most used fiber in the United States, since it is so versatile and relatively easy to make. Like most petroleum products, it has a very slow decay rate, which unfortunately results in the accumulation of unwanted products in landfills around the world.

尼龍 Nylon
Nylon is made through a chemical process called ring opening polymerization, in which a molecule with a cyclic shape is opened and flattened. Other forms of the material are made through the chemical reaction between two monomers: adipoyl chloride and hexamethylene diamine. When stretched, the fibers even out, thin, and smooth until they reach a point at which they have no more give, yet are still very strong. After nylon is extruded in a thread form, therefore, it is drawn or stretched after it cools to make long, even fibers. Before drawing, the material has a tangled structure, which straightens out into parallel lines.

The strength of nylon comes from amide groups in its molecular chain, which bond together very well. It also has a very regular shape, which makes it well suited to creating fabrics designed to stand up to intense forces. In fact, it was the primary material used in parachutes and ropes during World War II for this reason. It is also used for bulletproof vests and other hard wearing items.

Nylon is very sensitive to heat and should be washed and dried on cool settings. The fabric can also be hung dry, and it is favored by campers because it dries very quickly. It's a flexible textile, and as a result, it appears in a wide range of applications, from clothing to climbing equipment. Depending on how it is processed, nylon can be formed into the gossamer-like threads used in stockings or into thick toothbrush bristles.

Nylon is very much suitable for hosiery and the knitted fabrics because of its smoothness, light weight and high strength. Nylon is a lustrous fibre. The lustre of the fibre can be modified by adding the delustering agent at the molten stage.

Physical and Chemical Properties Nylon Fabrics

Composition: The nylons are polyamides with recurring amide groups. They contain carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen elements.

Strength: Nylon has good tenacity and the strength is not lost with age. Nylon has a high strength to weight ratio. It is one of the lightest textile fibres is at the same time also one of the strongest. It is one of the fibres which are added at the points of wear such as knees and seats of jeans and toes and heels of socks. The strength of the nylon fabric is lost when wet. Nylon has excellent abrasion resistance.

Elasticity: Nylon has good elasticity which makes it much suitable for the apparel purposes. The excellent elasticity would mean that the nylon materials return to their original length and shreds the wrinkles or creases. Nylon like other fibres has its own limit of elasticity. If stretched too much, it will not completely recover its shape. The high elongation and excellent elastic recovery of nylon contributes to the outstanding performance in hosiery. Nylon hosiery recovers to its original shape at knees and ankles instead of bagging.

Resilience: Nylon fabrics have excellent resilience. Nylon fabrics retain their smooth appearance and the wrinkles from the usual daily activities can be removed easily.

Drapability: Fabrics of nylon filament yarn have excellent draping qualities. The drape of the fabrics made from nylon can be varied depending on the yarn size. The light weight sheer fabrics of nylon night gowns have high-draping quality. The medium-weight dress fabrics can drape very nicely.

Heat Conductivity: The heat conductivity of the nylon fabrics vary depending upon the fabric construction, the type of nylon (staple/filament) used in the construction etc. For instance, the filament nylon used in the open construction would be cooler when compared to the same filament used in a closed construction. In a closed or tight construction the air circulation through the fabric is limited. The heat and moisture of the body will not readily pass the fabric construction, which makes the wearer feel very warm. Such fabrics are good for winter apparel, such as wind-breakers, but are not suitable for summer garments. On the other hand the fabrics with open construction permits the air circulation which makes the wearer feel cool.

Absorbency: Nylon fabrics have low absorbency. The low absorbency of the fabrics tends to be advantageous and also disadvantageous. The main advantage of the nylons low absorbency is that the water remains on the surface of the fabrics and runs off the smooth fabric and hence dries quickly. This property makes the nylon fabrics suitable for raincoats and shower curtains. Nylon’s low absorbency has a disadvantage in that the fabric feels clammy and uncomfortable in warm, humid weather.

Cleanliness and Washability: Nylon fabrics are easy care garments. Nylon fabrics are smooth, non-absorbent and dry quickly. Dirt doesn’t cling to this smooth fibre, which can be washed easily or can be even cleaned by using a damp cloth. Nylon whites are commonly referred as colour scavengers and should be washed separately to avoid greying. They easily pick up colour and dirt from the wash water. Nylons, washed with other fabrics pick up colour (even from the palest pastels) and develop a dingy grey appearance that is extremely difficult to remove. In addition to retaining their appearance during wear, garments made from nylon fabrics retain their appearance and shape after washing. Hot water should be avoided during washing as the hot water may cause wrinkling in some fabric constructions.

Effect of Bleaches: The nylon fabrics are white and generally do not require bleaching. The nylon fabrics which pick up colour or develop greying should be bleached with oxidising bleaches such as hydrogen peroxide.

Shrinkage: Nylon fabrics retain their shape and appearance after washing. It has good stability and does not shrink.

Effect of Heat: Nylon should always be ironed at low temperatures. Using hot iron will result in glazing and then melting of the fabric.

Effect of Light: Nylon fabrics have low resistance to sun light. They are not suitable for curtains or draperies as it is weakened by the exposure to sun light.

Resistance to Mildew: Nylon fabrics have absolute resistance to the development of mildew.

Resistance to Insects: Nylon is resistance to the moths and fungi.

Reaction to Alkalis: Nylon has excellent resistance to alkali's but the frequent and prolonged exposures to alkalis will weaken the nylon fabrics.

Reaction to Acids: Nylon is less resilient to the action of acids and is damaged by strong acids.

Affinity for Dyes: Nylon can be easily dyed with a wider range of dyes. The dyed fabrics retain their colour and have good resistance to fading.

Resistance to Perspiration: Nylon fabrics are resistant to perspiration.

編輯整理 Edited: ACOTEX Fabric Talks 布料指南
Source: wiseGEEK

3 Comments:

  1. 如果以100%的尼龍來做一件戶外登山用的衣服,請問它是否會比用純聚酯纖維的好很多?為何廠家會說純尼龍的工藝要求高很多及衣物的賣價會比聚酯纖維高?

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    1. 影響尼龍與聚酯纖維的好壞和適用度有很多因素,比如說纖維抽取的丹尼數、布料的厚薄度、混紡原料的好壞(如果有與其他纖維混紡的話)、混紡原料的比例(如果有與其他纖維混紡的話)、布料加工的技術和布料本身的功能等等。所以就不了解其布料的規格與細節的狀態下,很難下結論究竟尼龍較好,或是聚酯纖維較好。另外,布料的丹尼數與厚薄度也將大大影響製作上的難易度。以原料價格層面來說,尼龍的確較聚酯纖維高些,但織成布料後還是得看中間的加工過程才能進行更準確的判定。

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  2. 請問尼龍做的兒童睡袋保暖性好嗎?防蟎嗎?謝謝。

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